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In January 2020, OpenAI laid out the scaling law of language devices: You may presumably perchance presumably presumably give a take grasp of to the performance of any neural language mannequin by adding extra coaching files, extra mannequin parameters, and extra compute. Since then, there change into an fingers mosey to yell ever bigger neural networks for pure language processing (NLP). And basically the most up-to-date to affix the list is AI21 with its 178 billion parameter mannequin.

AI21 background and founding crew

AI21 is an Israeli company founded in 2017 by Yoav Shoham, Ori Goshen, and Amnon Sashua. Before this, Amnon founded Mobileye, the NYSE-listed self-riding tech company that Intel obtained for $15.4 billion. After being in stealth for years, AI21 launched its first product, Wordtune, in 2020 to back of us write better.

Final month, the corporate launched it has trained and launched two expansive NLP devices, Jurassic-1 Graceful and Jurrasic-1 Jumbo, by process of an interactive net UI known as AI21 Studio.

Unlike OpenAI’s closed beta win admission to, AI21 makes its devices on hand for anybody to envision out out — with out any waitlist.

Model sizes and performance benchmarks

Elevated devices exist — love the Chinese language Wu Dao 2.0, which is 10x the size, with 1.75 trillion parameters. But AI21’s J-1 Jumbo is the final phrase English language mannequin on hand to the conventional public up to now.

Caption: GPT-3 parameter sizes as estimated right here, GPT-Neo as reported by EleutherAI, J-1 as reported by AI21. denotes the devices are delivery offer.

The zero-shot mannequin performance on identified benchmarks for J-1 Jumbo is on par with GPT-3 Davinci, the final phrase OpenAI GPT-3 mannequin. “Zero-shot” is when the mannequin is no longer given any particular truly handy and is no longer gorgeous-tuned on any vogue of coaching files particular to the duty. Caption: Zero-shot benchmark comparability as reported by AI21.


In a outdated article, I walked thru a series of examples to camouflage GPT-Neo’s accurate world performance. Let us witness how well AI21’s devices produce in accurate apply.

Truth completion. Let’s commence by asking Jurassic-1 some traditional traditional files questions. My prompts to the mannequin are given in italics and the mannequin’s response in mettlesome.

What number of medals did USA defend in 2012 Olympics? 104 
What number of golds did USA defend in 2016 Olympics? 46 

That is the suitable retort!

What stood out:

  1. The mannequin is smooth enough to identify what we suggest by “golds” within the question, while the truly handy change into talking about medals.
  2. J-1 Jumbo 178B will get this beautiful, however J-1 Graceful 7.5B would now not!
  3. Making an are attempting the same question with the 2021 Olympics would now not work (doubtlessly since the mannequin is no longer consistently trained with unique files).

Neural Jeopardy! Taking it one step extra, how a pair of Jeopardy-vogue question-retort dialog. Thanks to the correct of us at Water Cooler Trivialities (WCT), we grasp now already got a query-retort build, a human benchmark, and a benchmark for GPT-3.

Running thru the 157 Jeopardy-vogue WCT questions, the J-1 Jumbo mannequin change into in a region to retort to with 55.4% accuracy. This compares favorably to the 52% real looking of folk that had taken the WCT. Nonetheless, it’s seriously worse than the 73% accuracy price of the GPT-3.

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On “straightforward” questions, J-1 Jumbo did three cases worse than GPT-3. Among the many 58 questions that 90+% of the human individuals got beautiful, GPT-3 change into inappropriate 4 cases, however J-1 change into inappropriate 12 cases.

Right here are a pair of of the questions GPT-3 got beautiful however Jurassic-1 Jumbo didn’t:

Q: At the starting up, they were known as Child Gays. Then they rebranded as Q-Tips, with the Q standing for what phrase linked to excessive standards?
GPT-3: Quality
AI21: Quarts

Q: Although basically the most current song on the movie’s soundtrack is “This Is Halloween” and the principle persona’s name is Jack Skellington, the 1993 cult-traditional Tim Burton movie that change into nominated for a visible results Oscar contains what OTHER holiday within the movie’s title?
GPT-3: The Nightmare Before Christmas
AI21: SLEEPY HOLLOW. The 1999 movie, starring Johnny Depp, Christina Ricci, Miranda Richardson, Casper

Because the questions got more difficult, both devices done within the same intention. Among the many 20 toughest questions, GPT3 change into inappropriate 13 cases, and Jurassic-1 change into inappropriate 14 cases. And 9 of the flawed answers by both devices were the same — i.e., the devices were inappropriate within the same manner!

Q: Spoonerism: two pairs of words with the first sounds or letters swapped, equivalent to blushing crow and crushing blow. What spoonerism describes these two objects? A feigned animal and expansive meal cooked in an oven.
GPT-3: A feigned animal and expansive meal cooked in an oven.
AI21: (1) A feigned animal and expansive meal cooked in an oven. (2) A feigned anima
Lawful Reply: faked beast

Q: Mario Lopez hosted the first seven seasons of what dance competition camouflage from 2008 – 2012?
GPT-3: Dancing with the Stars
AI21: Dancing with the Stars.
Lawful Reply: The US’s Simplest Dance Crew

The J-1 mannequin every so often regarded as itself being in a game-camouflage, main to hilarious completions that will presumably perchance presumably match beautiful precise into a game-camouflage scrip. (It got the second retort inappropriate after the drum-roll):

Q: What “shedding-form” card game has been a Mattel impress since 1992 and system playing cards with titles equivalent to “Wild” and “Reverse?
Lawful Reply: Uno

Q: In Rolling Stone’s most up-to-date version of the final phrase guitarists of all time, No. 5 change into a man with a monosyllabic first and final name. This man change into one in every of the three guitarists for The Yardbirds, and he spent decades exploring innovative guitar sounds. Who is he?
A21: (Drum roll, please) Eric Clapton
Lawful Reply: Jeff Beck

Imaginable motive behind J1-Jumbo’s underperformance

I ran a pair of adjustments of the experiment (some with GPT-3’s Q&A prompts and a few with out) and basically the most effective scoring benchmarks for J1-Jumbo were from a “zero-shot setting.” Nonetheless, the GPT-3 numbers reported listed right here are from a “few-shot” setting with an OpenAI-supplied instance truly handy.

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“Zero-shot” is when the mannequin is no longer given any particular truly handy, and “few-shot” is when there is an instance truly handy given to the mannequin that displays the duty. An instance truly handy in this case would be a bunch of random question/retort pairs. This helps the mannequin sign the duty it’s making an are attempting to produce — i.e., retort the question.

The Q&A truly handy feeble for the GPT-3 benchmark change into likely tuned and engineered for optimal performance with GPT-3’s devices, however a an identical “official” tuned truly handy for Q&A would now not exist but for AI21’s devices. Engineering a really handy that will presumably perchance presumably compete with the GPT-3 benchmark would now not seem love a trivial process. I observed that the generated output change into sensitive to reputedly trivial adjustments to the truly handy text — love an empty line within the starting build of the truly handy or a further home on the stay of every line of the truly handy. Confidently, AI21 will set out an exhaustive build of “simplest-performing” prompts to back mitigate this.

You may presumably perchance presumably presumably discover an intensive mannequin comparability, experiment setting, and raw files right here.

Ingenious writing

Now let’s witness how the mannequin does by manner of ingenious writing. I picked a rather of subtle process — a duration part about Twitter written as the leisurely Jerome Good ample. Jerome. Mario Klingemann tried this truly handy first with GPT-3, and you may presumably even be in a region to witness the GPT-3 response in this thread.

Beneath is the response by AI21 J-1 Jumbo (178B). Again, the input text is in italics and J-1’s response is in mettlesome:

The importance of being on twitter
by Jerome Good ample. Jerome
London, Summer time 1897

Its seemingly that I no doubt grasp puzzled the sequence of events.
Having learned the rudiments of twittering, I pressed on,
and rapidly chanced on myself transferring amongst the twittering classes.

I identified precise now that these of us were varied from
those I had identified sooner than. They were known as “twitterers,” and
they twittered. That change into all I knew about them.

They twittered, and so that they twittered.

Originally I twittered too. But I quickly chanced on that I
may presumably perchance presumably no longer dwell by twittering on my own, and that, moreover,
the twittering interfered with the intense business of existence.

So, having first secured the goodwill of the of us
who had identified me sooner than, I began to ogle spherical for some
serene win of existence. And after I met a man, well dressed
and serene, with a cigar in his mouth, and a gold watch
chain at some stage in his waistcoat, and an search for-glass in his
search for, I said to him, “Sir, what stay you stay for a living?”
He said, “I’m a skilled gentleman.”
I said, “What, sir, stay you name yourself a gentleman?”
He said, “I’m a barrister-at-law.”

I additionally tried this truly handy with the J1-Graceful 7.5B mannequin. After a pair of tries, the mannequin gave out what, in my opinion, is a in actuality ingenious part:

The importance of being on twitter
by Jerome Good ample. Jerome
London, Summer time 1897

It’s Sunday, and we’re having tea.
“I enlighten,” says I, “that you’re twittering.”
“Oh, certain,” says she, “I twitter the final time.
“I twitter about the weather,
“I twitter about of us,
“I twitter about books,
“I twitter about politics,
“I twitter about artwork
“I twitter about anything and every little thing

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I chanced on the part impressive since it managed to jot down in a dated language in a rhythmic prose that managed to defend the final theme of social networks.

Strategies to envision out out Jurassic-1

Unlike GPT-3, Jurassic-1 is available to every person. You may presumably perchance presumably presumably win admission to it from the AI21 studio (story introduction does require phone-quantity authentication).

The free tier enables 10Good ample tokens per day for the Jurassic-1 178B mannequin and three cases as grand for the smaller Jurassic-1 7.5B mannequin. That is enough to envision out out using the online UI, however no longer enough to expend the API to mosey any vogue of tests or benchmarks.

AI21 will more than likely be commercializing its devices thru an offering known as AI21 Studio, which is currently in “restricted delivery beta.” The company hasn’t launched a pricing mannequin for this commercial utilization but.

The underside line

Issues surrounding AI safety, ethics, and biases grasp been a topic of field with neural language devices, and so that they continue to stay with AI21’s devices. Conserving those issues aside for a second, AI21’s devices look like a promising change for GPT-3. Nonetheless, they whisk behind on a pair of fronts:

  1. They lack the flexibility to expend no doubt skilled devices love “GPT-3 davinci-teach”, which spurs GPT-3 to expend directions given as prompts or “GPT-3 codex” that specializes in writing code.
  2. The “truly handy” ecosystem is quiet no longer as frail as GPT-3. Hundreds of GPT-3’s prompts stay circuitously translate to AI21, and an exhaustive “official” list of prompts is no longer but on hand.
  3. AI21’s free token quota is simply too restrictive, and there is no longer any utilization based entirely mostly pricing launched as of but. This makes it subtle to mosey benchmarks or stay truly handy engineering. Light, you are going to be in a region to continuously write to them with an clarification of the requirement and so that they are cheerful to bump up the quota (love they did for me).

Nonetheless, it’s quiet very early days for AI21. With time, we are able to seek data from the AI21 language devices to be a viable different to the OpenAI language devices.

Abhishek Iyer is the founder of FreeText AI, a company specializing in text mining and Amazon review analysis.


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